Musical information can be represented in many different ways. Chapter 1 of [Müller, FMP, Springer 2015] covers three widely used music representations: sheet music, symbolic, and audio representations. In particular, it discusses musical and acoustic properties of audio signals including aspects such as frequency, pitch, dynamics, and timbre.

1.1 Sheet Music Representations

1.2 Symbolic Representations

1.3 Audio Representation

1.4 Further Topics

Topic |
Relation to [Müller, FMP, Springer 2015] & Description |
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IPYNB |

Sheet Music Representations | [Section 1.1] Musical score; full score; music notation; Beethoven example (Fifth Symphony) |
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Musical Notes and Pitches | [Section 1.1.1] Note; pitch; pitch class; scale; enharmonic equivalence; twelve-tone equal-tempered scale; scientific pitch notation |
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Chroma and Shepard Tones | [Section 1.1.1] Chroma; Shepard tones; Shepard's helix of pitch; chirp signal with exponential frequency increase; Shepard-Risset glissando |
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Piano Roll Representation | [Section 1.2.1] Player piano; piano rolls; Bach example (BWV 846, Fugue) |
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Symbolic Format: CSV | [Section 1.2] CSV format; Pandas; piano roll; visualization; Beethoven example (Fifth Symphony); Bach example (BWV 846, Fugue) |
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Symbolic Format: MIDI | [Section 1.2.2] MIDI standard; MIDI representation; timing information; PrettyMIDI; conversion (CSV); Beethoven example (Fifth Symphony); Bach example (BWV 846, Fugue) |
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Symbolic Format: MusicXML | [Section 1.2.3] Score representation; MusicXML; music21; visualization; conversion (CSV); note example (E$^\flat$); Beethoven example (Fifth Symphony) |
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Symbolic Format: Rendering | [Section 1.2] Software; MuseScore; music21; score rendering examples; Beethoven example (Fate Motive) |
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Waves and Waveforms | [Section 1.3.1] Pressure–time plot; waveform; wave propagation; transverse wave; longitudinal wave; video rendering |
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Frequencies and Pitches | [Section 1.3.2] Sinusoid; frequency; amplitude; pitch; center frequency; cent; just noticeable difference |
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Harmonic Series | [Section 1.3.2] Harmonics; octave; perfect fifth; center frequency; sinusoid experiment |
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Pythagorean Tuning | [Section 1.3.2, Excersise 1.10, Section 5.1.1.2] Pythagorean comma; Pythagorean scale; sinusoid experiment |
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Dynamics, Intensity, and Loudness | [Section 1.3.3] Decibel scale; sound intensity; threshold of hearing (TOH); loudness; equal loudness contour; chirp experiment; Beethoven example (Fifth Symphony) |
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Timbre | [Section 1.3.4] ADSR model; amplitude; envelope; vibrato; tremolo; sinusoid; partials; missing fundamental; sinusoid experiment |
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