After working through the material of this lecture, you should be able to answer the following questions:

- What is the general goal of music synchronization? What is the processing pipeline of a typical music synchronization procedure?
- What is the objective of dynamic time warping (DTW)? What is the input and what is the output of a DTW procedure?
- How are the concepts of a feature space, a feature sequence, a local cost measure, and a cost matrix related? (See Eq. 3.12 and Eq. 3.13.)
- What is the mathematical definition of a warping path? What are the conditions that need to be satisfied? (See Eq. 3.15 to Eq. 3.18).
- How is the cost of a warping path defined? (See Eq. 3.20)
- What is the mathematical definition of the DTW distance? (See Eq. 3.21.)
- Is, in general, an optimal warping path uniquely defined?
- How can the DTW distance computed efficiently? (See Table 3.2.)
- What is meant by interdocument and intradocument navigation?
- What is encoded by a tempo curve? How can it be visualized? How can one compute a tempo curve from an alignment path?

MÃ¼ller, FMP, Springer 2021

Chapter 3: Music Synchronization

- Introduction of Chapter 3
- Section 3.2: Dynamic Time Warping (DTW)
- Section 3.2.1: Basic Approach

- Section 3.3: Applications
- Section 3.3.1: Multimodal Music Navigation
- Section 3.3.2: Tempo Curves

- Exercises
- Exercise 3.8
- Exercise 3.10
- Exercise 3.11
- Exercise 3.12

- Music Synchronization: Slides (PDF), Handouts (6 slides per page) (PDF)

- Music Processing using Chroma Features (17:37)

Music representations; music synchronization; interpretation switcher; audio features; chroma; alignment; dynamic time warping; score following - What is Music Alignment? (5:11)

In case you like automatically generated videos ... 😉 - Multiscale Mozart Synchronization (0:50)

Variations on ISMIR